As a complement to vaccines, small-molecule therapeutic agents are needed to treat or prevent infections by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants, which cause COVID-19. Affinity selection-mass spectrometry was used for the discovery of botanical ligands to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Cannabinoid acids from hemp (Cannabis sativa) were found to be allosteric as well as orthosteric ligands with micromolar affinity for the spike protein. In follow-up virus neutralization assays, cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid prevented infection of human epithelial cells by a pseudovirus expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and prevented entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Importantly, cannabigerolic acid and cannabidiolic acid were equally effective against the SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant B.1.1.7 and the beta variant B.1.351. Orally bioavailable and with a long history of safe human use, these cannabinoids, isolated or in hemp extracts, have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2
CORVALLIS, Ore. – Hemp compounds identified by Oregon State University research via a chemical screening technique invented at OSU show the ability to prevent the virus that causes COVID-19 from entering human cells.
Findings of the study led by Richard van Breemen, a researcher with Oregon State’s Global Hemp Innovation Center, College of Pharmacy and Linus Pauling Institute, were published today in the Journal of Natural Products.
Hemp, known scientifically as Cannabis sativa, is a source of fiber, food and animal feed, and multiple hemp extracts and compounds are added to cosmetics, body lotions, dietary supplements and food, van Breemen said.
Van Breemen and collaborators, including scientists at Oregon Health & Science University, found that a pair of cannabinoid acids bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, blocking a critical step in the process the virus uses to infect people
A quick read offering a brief snapshot of the past 5,000 years of Pharmacological Cannabis use and some of the most significant findings since Western Medicine has adopted its use in the past 180 years, this paper establishes (from multiple sources) Cannabis' prowess and widespread use across many cultures and epochs as a critical pharmacological treatment for ailments such as acute and chronic pain, convulsive disorders, rheumatism, opiate addiction, and more.
This review of 1217 abstracts culminated in a deep dive on 39 scholarly articles to review the effetcs of individual cannabinoids and combinations of cannabinoids as analgestics (used for pain management). This is a great opportunity to broadly review 39 peer qualified articles on the efficacy of cannabis as a pain management solution and begin to understand the limitations which of researching this complex therapeutic agent. It organizes the culminated findings by "Healthy Control Samples (3.1)" (subjects without underlying medical conditions) and "Patient Samples (3.2)" (subjects with underlying conditions).
This study observed the effects on tumor growth, propagation, and lifespan when medicated with different doses, combinations, and ratios of combinations of CBN, CBD, and Delta-9 & Delta-8 THC in mice. Some major observations included slower tumor growth in subjects dosed with Delta-9 THC, smaller tumor size observed in subjects dosed with CBN and Detla-8 THC, and a combination CBN, Delta-8, and Delta-9 was observed to increase mean lifespan of the tumor implanted mice by 36% over control.
This early study on rats and rabbits explored a range of potential site effects of the use of various cannabinoids and combinations. Notably, it concluded that the effects of THC were increased in impact and duration by the presence of CBN; measured by time to sleep, induce catantonia, and its capacity to work as an analgestic (pain reliever).
This study conducted to observe the psychoactive effects of dosing THC in concert with CBD as well as each independantly concluded that CBD does indeed mitigate the "euphoric" effects of THC as well as other "THC-like effects", on its own CBD was shown to be innactive for all psychoactivity parameters measured.
The general takeaway from this large scale review was that use of selective cannabinoids was also associated with improvements in quality of life and sleep with no major adverse effects. This review assessed 11 randomized, controlled trials, totalling 1219 patients, by comparing cannabinoid therapies to conventional pain management sought to establish consensus amongst the contradictory recommendations founds throughout the many studies conducted.
This study led to the conclusion that high CBD to CBN ratios have a significant effect on reducing muscle withdrawal response (speeds relaxation) without impairing motor function. This essentially means that a high CBD:CBN ratio dose promotes muscular relaxation and inhibits the pain response to stress but does not impair the patient.
These results suggest that peripheral application of these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may provide analgesic (pin) relief for chronic muscle pain disorders such as temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia without central side effects.