A quick read offering a brief snapshot of the past 5,000 years of Pharmacological Cannabis use and some of the most significant findings since Western Medicine has adopted its use in the past 180 years, this paper establishes (from multiple sources) Cannabis' prowess and widespread use across many cultures and epochs as a critical pharmacological treatment for ailments such as acute and chronic pain, convulsive disorders, rheumatism, opiate addiction, and more.
This review of 1217 abstracts culminated in a deep dive on 39 scholarly articles to review the effetcs of individual cannabinoids and combinations of cannabinoids as analgestics (used for pain management). This is a great opportunity to broadly review 39 peer qualified articles on the efficacy of cannabis as a pain management solution and begin to understand the limitations which of researching this complex therapeutic agent. It organizes the culminated findings by "Healthy Control Samples (3.1)" (subjects without underlying medical conditions) and "Patient Samples (3.2)" (subjects with underlying conditions).
This early study on rats and rabbits explored a range of potential site effects of the use of various cannabinoids and combinations. Notably, it concluded that the effects of THC were increased in impact and duration by the presence of CBN; measured by time to sleep, induce catantonia, and its capacity to work as an analgestic (pain reliever).
The general takeaway from this large scale review was that use of selective cannabinoids was also associated with improvements in quality of life and sleep with no major adverse effects. This review assessed 11 randomized, controlled trials, totalling 1219 patients, by comparing cannabinoid therapies to conventional pain management sought to establish consensus amongst the contradictory recommendations founds throughout the many studies conducted.
This study led to the conclusion that high CBD to CBN ratios have a significant effect on reducing muscle withdrawal response (speeds relaxation) without impairing motor function. This essentially means that a high CBD:CBN ratio dose promotes muscular relaxation and inhibits the pain response to stress but does not impair the patient.
These results suggest that peripheral application of these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may provide analgesic (pin) relief for chronic muscle pain disorders such as temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia without central side effects.
A 2019 study found that both CBD and CBN were able to reduce myofascial pain in rats. A combination of CBN and CBD was even more effective than either alone. The results suggest that peripheral application of these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may provide analgesic relief for chronic muscle pain disorders such as temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia without central side effects.
Despite improvements in medical care, patients with advanced cancer still experience substantial symptom distress. There is increasing interest in the use of medicinal cannabinoids but little high-quality evidence to guide clinicians. This study aims to define the role of a 1:1 delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD) cannabinoid preparation in the management of symptom burden in patients with advanced cancer undergoing standard palliative care.
31 patients were involved in an observational cross-over study. The patients were screened, treated with 3 months of standardised analgesic therapy (SAT): 5 mg of oxycodone hydrochloride equivalent to 4.5 mg oxycodone and 2.5 mg naloxone hydrochloride twice a day and duloxetine 30 mg once a day. Following 3 months of this therapy, the patients could opt for MCT and were treated for a minimum of 6 months. Patient reported outcomes (PRO's) included: FIQR, VAS, ODI and SF-12 and lumbar range of motion (ROM) was recorded using the modified Schober test. Results: While SAT led to minor improvement as compared with baseline status, the addition of MCT allowed a significantly higher improvement in all PRO's at 3 months after initiation of MCT and the improvement was maintained at 6 months. ROM improved after 3 months of MCT and continued to improve at 6 months.